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Bangladesh has been boasting the very best financial progress charges among the many international locations of South Asia over the previous 10 years. The nation’s GDP per capita has reached USD 2,500, a quantity that surpasses these of the neighboring India and Pakistan. Dhaka is eager on fostering relations with Beijing, New Delhi and Washington concurrently. Nonetheless, amidst the continuing tectonic shifts within the international political system and financial system, extreme diversification of relations is more likely to hurt their effectivity.

Ports open for all

The interior political crises in Pakistan and Myanmar have considerably halted China’s joint initiatives with these nations, together with the development of transport infrastructure—motorways, railroads, and seaports within the strategically essential Bay of Bengal. Due to its geographic location, massive inhabitants and spectacular financial indicators, Bangladesh has attracted Beijing’s consideration as a promising vacation spot for the Belt and Street Initiative. In October 2016, Chinese language President Xi Jinping visited the nation, successfully signaling Chinese language companies and state companies to launch full-scale operations there. In July 2019, Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina visited Beijing and reiterated her intention to deepen the partnership in commerce, funding, protection and infrastructure.

As of 2022, greater than 500 Chinese language corporations have been energetic in Bangladesh constructing roads, bridges, tunnels, energy vegetation, and modernizing seaports. As reported by Chinese language Ambassador to Bangladesh Li Jiming, the quantity of Chinese language funding within the nation’s financial system in 2021 tripled as in comparison with 2020, reaching USD 1.26 billion. This grew to become potential largely as a result of a big enchancment within the funding local weather and the ever present introduction of public-private partnerships. In whole, the record of funding tasks has greater than 60 positions, and the whole quantity of potential investments exceeds USD 40 billion.

The Padma Bridge Rail Hyperlink Undertaking with an eponymous multi-purpose bridge, connecting the southwest with the northern and jap areas, will be seen because the flagship undertaking. Sooner or later, the plan requires establishing common high-speed visitors between Dhaka and Kolkata, India. Growing the connectivity of the totally different areas will permit a fuller use of the financial potential and enhance dwelling requirements of the inhabitants within the areas mendacity far-off from the capital. The bridge itself (greater than 6 km in size, put in on 42 underwater pylons for rail and highway visitors, its value reaching USD 3.6 billion) is at present essentially the most refined engineering construction within the nation. The inaugural occasion was held in June 2022.

One other precedence is the implementation of high-speed Web networks all through Bangladesh in accordance with the federal government’s Digital Bangladesh idea, with the assistance of China Worldwide Railway Group (CRIG) and Huawei.

An essential space of worldwide cooperation is the Payra Port undertaking within the south. Nonetheless, the destiny of the undertaking has not but been finalized. The price of building, in keeping with the unique plan, ranged from USD 11 and USD 15 billion, which prompted the federal government to announce a waiver of deepwater port standing in 2021, to hurry up the commissioning of the ability and to cut back the prices. The modified model retains the bridge over the river, the highway and entry railroads, together with a 75-kilometer-long canal. Nonetheless, the development of residential neighborhoods, a leisure space, social infrastructure, an airport, a container terminal and a liquefied pure gasoline storage facility has been cancelled in the meanwhile. The laying of a railroad from Payra to Dhaka is feasible solely by 2030. In response to the adjustment, ships with a draft of as much as 18 m are to be acquired within the port of Matarbari, with the development at present carried out on the expense of Japanese buyers, after which the cargo will likely be delivered by lighters to the ports of Payra, Mongla and Chittagong. Nonetheless, there aren’t any ensures of this initiative’s implementation both.

To date, till the state of affairs turns into clearer, Chinese language companies have largely most well-liked to maneuver a lot of cargo turnover to Chittagong. There’s hypothesis that the Sheikh Hasina authorities has determined to take this step to cut back China’s affect and to reassure its Indian companions.

Nonetheless, it’s too early to low cost the Better Payra undertaking: Dhaka is exploring the potential of a port-based financial improvement zone that will home clothes, footwear and pharmaceutical vegetation, cement and oil refineries, a coal-fired thermal energy plant, fish processing and fertilizer manufacturing services, in addition to ship restore services. On this type, Payra might have a big optimistic affect on the nationwide socio-economic improvement—however once more all of it rests on the supply of funding.

Numerous plans

Throughout his go to to Bangladesh in August 2022, then-Chinese language International Minister Wang Yi met the nation’s management to debate the problems of commerce and financial cooperation improvement, assist for infrastructure constructing, in addition to the repatriation of Rohingya refugees. The pinnacle of Chinese language diplomacy referred to as Dhaka a “strategic improvement associate” and pledged to assist the nation’s pursuits in varied worldwide venues. As a measure of help, it was agreed that 98% of Bangladeshi items and companies provided on the Chinese language market needs to be introduced beneath the duty-free association. The 2 sides have signed cooperation agreements and memoranda of understanding in cultural and humanitarian alternate domains, infrastructure building, in addition to the response to pure and man-caused disasters.

In response to the International Ministry of Bangladesh, China will present most help to resolve the disaster attributable to the mass inflow of Rohingya refugees. Because the early 2021 alone, some 700,000 individuals have migrated from the border areas of Myanmar to Bangladesh after the navy took over in Myanmar early in 2021. Fairly presumably, Beijing expects to succeed in agreements with Nay Pyi Taw on safety ensures for among the refugees who usually are not related to insurgents and terrorists, and their subsequent lodging in Myanmar areas, particularly designated by the navy authorities.

It’s noteworthy that amid the deepening disaster within the Taiwan Strait, the Bangladeshi authorities affirmed their dedication to the “one China” precept. Taiwan’s consultant workplace in Dhaka had been closed even earlier, in 2008. This was the principle situation for increasing the partnership with China.

China accounted for three-quarters of Bangladesh’s abroad arms purchases between 2010 and 2021. The offers are near USD 3 billion (USD 1 billion with Russia); this consists of the settlement to purchase two submarines, frigates, anti-ship and anti-aircraft missiles, and fighter jets. All the fight programs are out of date, however Bangladeshi personnel usually are not but certified to function even this tools. Because of this, the price of coaching, skill-raising packages, upkeep and restore exceeds the price of acquisition, however some other tools imported is much more difficult and costly. The U.S. proposal to produce Apache helicopters and varied lessons of guided missile weapons to Bangladesh is hardly possible within the foreseeable future.

Who has been ensnared?

Beijing’s initiatives to develop cooperation with Dhaka have induced concern in some international locations, primarily in India, the place the potential of a Chinese language naval base at one of many ports is now contemplated. Nonetheless, PRC officers guarantee that Bangladesh is not going to grow to be a “jewel within the necklace” of potential navy bases overseas, and there are at present no plans to construct a protection facility or station PLA items. The Japanese newspaper Nikkei has additionally reported on the approaching institution of a missile upkeep facility within the nation to keep up and improve the missiles beforehand bought from China. Nonetheless, this could hardly be seen as a big navy facility or an indication of growth.

The following standard criticism of Bangladesh-China cooperation is the potential “debt lure” and the lack of sovereignty to a sure extent. Certainly, the underdeveloped infrastructure, together with transport and vitality infrastructure, is a big constraint to the financial progress of Bangladesh. The nation is at present experiencing difficulties as a result of a big rise in gas costs and a dramatic discount in electrical energy era. International alternate reserves have been depleted by 11% in 2022. The primary finances revenues are related to the export of textiles, clothes, footwear and different gentle trade merchandise, however within the present context of common austerity the consumption of such items has decreased considerably the world over; there’s additionally instability of logistics routes.

The scale of Dhaka’s worldwide debt has already exceeded USD 62 billion. In response to Finance Minister Mustafa Kamal of Bangladesh, the federal government ought to account for the expertise of Sri Lanka and Pakistan and take into consideration extra loans. To restructure the liabilities and put the financial system of Bangladesh again on a sound footing, USD 4.5 billion will supposedly be borrowed from the Worldwide Financial Fund, the World Financial institution, the Asian Improvement Financial institution and the Japan Worldwide Cooperation Company. It’s important that Japan is the principle holder of Bangladesh’s overseas debt that exceeds USD 10 billion (2.5% of its GDP). Obligations to Chinese language collectors alone quantity to USD 4 billion, or 1% of GDP, which is clearly not sufficient for the “debt snare”. The Bangladesh Ministry of Finance even needed to make clear the Monetary Instances report on the alleged catastrophic enhance within the measurement of its debt to China. The Ministry famous that any overseas undertaking undergoes a radical skilled analysis of its feasibility, usefulness for the nation, and acceptability of economic phrases, so unequal cooperation is solely not potential.

Apparently sufficient, again in 2015-2016, 1 / 4 of all overseas direct funding in Bangladesh got here from america, and one other 15% was supplied by the UK. Western help and subsidies decreased considerably because of the improvement of Sino-Bangladeshi ties beneath the Belt and Street Initiative and the aggravation of the Rohingya disaster. Nonetheless, some 14.5% of the nation’s exports are nonetheless despatched to the U.S. (in addition to to Germany).

In April 2022, International Minister Abdul Momen visited Washington, D.C., the place he met with Secretary of State A. Blinken. The main focus was on supporting democracy and civil society in Bangladesh. In January 2023, the Royal Navy’s patrol ship Tamar visited Chattogram Naval Station as an indication of friendship and maritime safety cooperation within the Bay of Bengal.

Given Bangladesh’s essential strategic function, we will count on elevated consideration to the nation from the U.S. and its allies, together with, as a part of this initiative, with a view to construct a “free and open Indo-Pacific area”. The West will logically reap the benefits of Dhaka’s need to cut back its debt burden and diversify its sources of earnings.


In the present day, Beijing is Dhaka’s nearly solely associate of in creating socially and economically crucial infrastructure, though the nation’s authorities is making an attempt to diversify the geography of its companions in each potential manner. China additionally accounts for about 40% of all imported merchandise and at the least 25% of the nation’s inventory market. Each main events in Bangladesh are unanimously in favor of a bilateral partnership with China. Nonetheless, native politicians are divided over the neighboring India.

Nonetheless, it’s untimely to speak about Bangladesh’s unequivocal entry into the orbit of Chinese language affect as Dhaka can not but afford to decide on an solely strategic associate. Nonetheless, plainly the “sonar Bangla” (golden Bangladesh) dream can solely be realized in case of inner political stability. It’s tough to count on the West, which emphasizes liberal values no matter cultural specificities and historic expertise, to abstain from interference within the nation’s inner affairs if the federal government in Dhaka pursues an excessively unbiased course. It is usually price noting that Dhaka has shunned condemning Russia and is pinning its hopes on the bilateral ties with Moscow within the subject of military-technical cooperation, vitality and agriculture. On this regard, the eye of Washington and allies to Bangladesh within the close to future appears assured.

From our associate RIAC